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EHA : Yearkbook 2009
EHA YEARBOOK 2009 Air Quality and its impact on Health: (continued) far. Better-targeted studies in other settings should be initiated to improve understanding of ultrafine particles and health outcomes. The World Health Organization (WHO 2005) has recently stated that: While there is considerable toxicological evidence of potential detrimental effects of ultrafine particles on human health, the existing body of epidemiological evidence is insufficient to conclude on exposure/response relationship to ultrafine particles. Therefore, no recommendations can be provided as to guideline concentrations of these particles at this point (WHO 2005). In the absence of recommendations and quantitative knowledge on nanoparticles in the urban environment, governments are unable to act proactively and are often forced to take ad hoc steps in response to increasing pressure from the community. In summary, the magnitude of the impact of ultrafine and nanoparticles on human health and the environment has still not been fully quantified, nor is it fully understood, and the first step in this direction is to develop an in depth understanding of particle concentrations, characteristics, time trends and spatial distribution in clean and anthropogenic modified environments. This knowledge would, in turn, lead to an understanding of the potential impacts of the particles on the environment and the implications on human epidemiology. It could also be used as a basis for setting any future emission and air quality standards based on particle number. References Cohen, B.S. & Xiong, J.Q. 19 98 , ‘Deposition of charged particles on lung airways’, Health Physics, vol. 74 , no. 5, pp. 554-60. Dockery, D.W., Pope, C., Xu, X., Spengler, J.D., Ware, J.H., Fay, M.E. et al. 19 93 , ‘An association between air pollution and mortality in six US cities’, New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 329 , no. 24, pp. 1753-9. Dominici, F. 2002, ‘Invited commentary: Air pollution and health – what can we learn from a hierarchical approach?’, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 155 , no. 1, pp. 11-15. Environmental Health Vol. 7 No. 3 2007 57 Air Quality and Its Impact on Health: Focus on Particulate Matter Harrison, R.M., Jones, M. & Collins, G. 1999, ‘Measurements of the physical properties of particles in the urban atmosphere’, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 33 , no. 2, pp. 309-21. Katsouyanni, K., Touloumi, G., Samoli, E., Gryparis, A., Le Tertre, A., Monopolis, Y. et al. 2001, ‘Confounding and effect modification in the short-term effects of ambient particles on total mortality: Results from 29 European cities within the APHEA2 project’, Epidemiology, vol. 12 , pp. 521-31. Maynard, A.D. 2000, ‘Overview of methods for analysing single ultrafine particles’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, A 358 , pp. 2593 - 610 . Morawska, L., Agranovski, V. & Moore, M.R. 2 0 0 7, State of Epidemiological Evidence for Health Impacts of Ultrafine Particles, 14th IUAPPA World Congress, Brisbane, Australia. Morawska, L. & He, C. 2003, ‘Particle concentration levels and size distribution characteristics in residential and non-industrial workplace environments’, in Indoor Environment, Airborne Particles and Settled Dust, eds L. Morawska & T. Salthammer, Wiley-Vch, Weinheim, Germany. Morawska, L., Moore, M. & Ristovski, Z. 2003, Desktop Literature Review and Analysis of Health Impacts of Ultrafine Particles, Australian Department of Environment and Heritage, Canberra, <http:// www.environment.gov.au/atmosphere/airquality/ publications/health-impacts/index.html>. Morawska, L. 2003, ‘Motor vehicle emissions as a source of indoor particles’, in Indoor Environment, Airborne Particles and Settled Dust, eds L. Morawska & T. Salthammer, WILEY-VCH, Weinheim, Germany. Perrottet, T. 2002, Route 66AD: On the Trail of Ancient Roman Tourists, Ebury Press, UK. Pope, C. 2000, ‘Epidemiology of fine particulate air pollution and human health: Biologic mechanisms and who’s at risk?’, Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 108 , Suppl. 4, pp. 713-23. Pope, C.A. & Dockery, D. W. 2006, ‘Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: Lines that connect’, Journal of Air and Waste Management Association, vol. 56 , pp. 709-42. Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., Dominici, F. , Curriero, F. , Coursac, I., Dockery, D. W. et al. 2000, ‘The national morbidity, mortality, and air pollution study, Part ii, Morbidity and mortality from air pollution in the United States’, Research Report, Health Effects Institute, vol. 94 , pp. 5-79. Seethaler, R.K., Kunzli, H., Sommer, O., Chanel, M., Herry, M. & Masson, S. et al. 2003, ‘Economic costs of air pollution related health impacts: An Impact Assessment Project of Austria, France and Switzerland’, Clean Air and Environmental Quality, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 35-43. Thomas, S. & Morawska, L. 2002, ‘Size-selected particles in an urban atmosphere of Brisbane, Australia’, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 36 , no. 26 , pp. 4277-88. World Health Organization (WHO) 2000, Guidelines for Air Quality, Geneva, World Health Organization. World Health Organization (WHO) 2002, Guidelines for Concentration and Exposure-Response Measurement of Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Matter for Use in Epidemiological Studies, Geneva, World Health Organization. World Health Organization (WHO) 2005, Guidelines for Air Quality, Geneva, World Health Organization. Correspondence to: Lidia Morawska International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health Queensland University of Technology Brisbane, Queensland, 4 0 01 AUSTRALIA Email: L.email@example.com
Annual Review and Yearbook 2008
EHA Yearbook 2010